The Vietnamese economy has burgeoned into one of the world’s strongest economies thanks to its stable political and influential macroeconomic environment. Since the late 1980s, its Doi Moi reform policy has employed a range of measures to foster its attractiveness to foreign investment and develop a resilient economy. Hence, doing business in Vietnam is a lucrative option for foreign investors planning to expand their operations.
With over a dozen trade agreements in place, including the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement, Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership, and most recently RCEP, the government remains committed to promoting international trade. As part of the country’s goal of embracing industry 4.0, the government is proactively implementing various initiatives as well as the rollout of a 5G network is also in the pipeline.
Vietnam’s Economy at a Glance
Combined with global trends and economic reforms that started in 1986, Vietnam emerged from being one of the world’s poorest nations into a middle-income country. Between 2002 and 2021, GDP per capita increased 3.6 times, reaching almost USD 3,700. Moreover, the poverty rate (USD 1.90/day) declined from over 32% in 2011 to below 2% in 2022.
GDP growth since the reforms has stayed consistently above 6%, with 2022 ending at over 8%. Through different crises, including COVID-19, the economy has proven resilient due to its solid foundation. Vietnam was one of the few countries that registered a positive GDP growth during the pandemic.
Vietnam is Set Up for Regional Dominance by 2036
Vietnam will be the second-largest economy in Southeast Asia by 2036, as projected by the Centre for Economics and Business Research’s (CEBR) World Economic League Table 2022. Advantageous trends in the global economy (such as the US-China trade war) have allowed the country to record remarkable economic growth.
Diversifying exports, integrating manufacturing into global supply chains, and forming trade partnerships are all part of the country’s growth strategy. Not only will these efforts expand national trade but also attract foreign investment.
The Vietnam Investment Review (VIR) reported that the national government plans to become a high-income nation by the year 2045. To achieve this milestone, the country needs to grow by approximately 5% per capita on an annual basis. Based on the country’s most recent five-year development plan, the economy is projected to expand at an approximate rate of 6.5% every year for the next ten years.
As it seeks to become a developed country, it faces several key challenges. Expediting the process of implementing policies is necessary to keep up with recessions in the global economy and the aging population.
Moreover, there is a need to update and modify the regulatory system in Vietnam, with special attention paid to technologically advanced enterprises and the interdependency of economic zones.
Ease of Doing Business in Vietnam
According to the Doing Business report published in 2020, Vietnam ranks 70th worldwide for the accommodation of business activities. Here is a breakdown of different several aspects of business in Vietnam (scale of 100, higher is better).
|Doing Business Topics||Topic Score|
|Starting a Business||85.1|
|Dealing with Construction Permits||79.3|
|Protecting Minority Investors||54.0|
|Trading across Borders||70.8|
A Summary of Company Registration Entities in Vietnam
If you’re planning to start a 100% foreign-owned business in Vietnam, you’ll have four options: limited liability company, representative office, branch office, and joint-stock company.
Limited Liability Company
A Limited Liability Company (LLC) is the most popular type of entity that foreign investors can use to establish their business in Vietnam, especially for small and medium-sized businesses. An LLC only requires a single founder but large-scale LLCs can have more than one founder, comprising 2-50 members.
Some features of LLCs include:
- Charter capital investment is the only liability
- Simplified workflow and less paperwork
- Raising more capital is relatively easy
- Engage in income-generating programs without restriction
If a foreign investor wants to gauge the market dynamics in Vietnam, they can set up a Representative Office (RO) before making any further commitments.
However, the company cannot generate revenue. It can only employ local talent, conduct research related to markets, and administer contracts negotiated with local businesses.
If a parent company wishes to make profits and get involved in business operations without any legal binding, you can open a Branch Office (BO) in the country. Some of its attributes are:
- BOs can issue invoices
- BOs can keep accounting and taxation records separately or jointly
- A legal representative is required
Joint-stock Company (JSC)
A JSC is suitable for medium and large-sized businesses because it has more restrictive structures and frameworks. Some of its characteristics are as follows:
- The structure of the company is complex
- There is no limit on a shareholder’s liability. Shareholders can easily transfer ownership of their shares.
- Maximum number of shareholders is not restricted.
- It should have at least three founders.
Corporate Taxes Overview
Business operations in Vietnam are subject to three types of taxes: corporate income tax, personal income tax, and value-added tax. Other taxes may apply based on your specific business lines.
In Vietnam, companies typically pay 20% as corporate income tax (CIT). This rate is relatively low compared to China or India and on par with other countries in Southeast Asia. Moreover, operating in particular regions and certain industries grant tax incentives to business investors.
In the case of rare and valuable commodities, namely precious metals and minerals, CIT can go up to 50%. On the other hand, the rate may be reduced by 40% if at least 70% of the allocated area is located in a socio-economically challenging region.
Prior to starting your business, be sure to find out what taxes apply to your sector and location.
Tax Incentives in Vietnam
A few incentives offered by the Vietnam government are as follows:
- Preferential Tax Rates
CIT can be paid at a lower rate than the standard 20%. The preferential rates are 10%, 15%, and 17%. The reduced rates are valid for certain industries and for a specified period. Except in a few cases, such as high-tech enterprises and projects, the preferred tax rate starts to apply from the year the company generates revenue.
- Tax Holidays AKA Corporate Tax Reductions
For preferred industries, usually related to information technology or agri-tech, foreign companies are eligible for the following reductions:
- First 4 years: exempt from CIT completely
- Next 9 years: 50% tax reduction of the 10% rate
- Next 2 years: 10% CIT
On the 16th year of operations and after, the standard 20% corporate income tax rate applies.
Identifying industrial production zones
Vietnam has three significant economic zones:
NKEZ (Northern Key Economic Zones)
Along with the capital city, Hanoi, six provinces make up the NKEZ: Hai Duong, Bac Ninh, Hung Yen, Vinh Phuc, Hai Phong, and Quang Ninh. Among this area’s strengths are motorbike manufacturing, electronics, and technologically advanced products. In addition to being able to provide competitive labor costs, the region is also close to the second-largest economy in the world, China. Thanks to the strategic location, it is considered to be one of the most sought-after destinations for manufacturers considering a strategy beyond China.
CKEZ (Central Key Economic Zones)
There are four provinces (namely Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Binh Dinh) and the Da Nang municipality in the CKEZ. There has been significant development in this region in areas such as textile manufacturing, apparel, materials for construction, and the production of wood and paper.
SKEZ (Southern Key Economic Zones)
Ho Chi Minh City and seven southern provinces: Ba Ria – Vung Tau, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Tay Ninh, Dong Nai, Long An, and Tien Giang, constitute the SKEZ. Industries such as textiles, rubber, and plastics are located in this zone. SMEs and other businesses are attracted to this region due to its diverse economy and a large pool of resources.
Overview of Vietnam’s Workforce
Vietnam’s impressively young professional workforce drives the country’s economic growth. The country is host to a booming young population of 99 million people, out of which 51.6 million are employed. Moreover, more than 30 million Vietnamese are below the age of 35.
According to the General Statistics Office, there were 45 million people of working age employed as of Q2 2022, an increase of 2.3% over the previous year. JobHopin, a recruitment company, witnessed an astounding 38.6% increase in the number of jobs posted on its platform.
The abundance of labor is also a driving factor in Vietnam’s competitive labor costs. This puts the country on the map as one of the top destinations in Southeast Asia for operations such as manufacturing and software outsourcing.
Moreover, after COVID-19, Vietnam is on the fast track to fully recover, with unemployment rates dropping by 34.9%.
Expanding to a foreign country is never a simple venture. Here are a few obstacles you might have to keep in mind when doing business in Vietnam.
Excessive bureaucratic procedures
Between 2012 and 2020, over 57,000 officials were disciplined based on Regulation no. 47-QD/TW, dated 1 November 2011. Among them, 17.4% were charged with bureaucracy and irresponsibility, including power abuse, inaccurate reports, and bribery.
Drawing on criteria such as corruption levels and policy efficiency, the Political and Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) has rated Vietnam among one of the worst countries in the world in terms of Bureaucratic Performance (2018).
Vietnamese Currency (VND)
In the final months of 2022, the world has seen a sharp increase in the value of the dollar (USD). This is a result of the U.S Federal government tightening loaning policies to combat inflation. Vietnam’s currency, the Vietnamese dong, has also suffered from dropping values.
Price of the USD to the VND – source: Google Finance
However, the government has issued rather strict regulations for international transactions, especially for outgoing cash flow.
Required Use of The Vietnamese Language in Paperwork
When operating a business in Vietnam, all reporting and filing paperwork, including licenses, must be written in the Vietnamese language. For documents that are in English or other languages, they must be translated into Vietnamese through certified translations at the court in the home country. The certified translated documents must then be validated by a Vietnam embassy.
Taxes in Vietnam
There are typically three types of business tax payments required annually (although several more may be required for your specific business activities), despite the fact that the reform of Vietnam’s complex tax structure is in progress.
Through some enacted reforms, Vietnam plans to simplify the process of finalizing taxes (tax filing/tax returns) and transitioning to a fully digitalized system for filing taxes.
A lot of work must also be done by the authorities in respect of the improvement of technology for tax reporting such as electronic tax declaration.
RELATED: Tax Incentives in Vietnam
Vietnam depends heavily on cash for payment in the country. More than 90% of the country’s transactions are done in cash due to the lack of standardized and reliable cashless systems and ATMs.
The government, however, aims to make Vietnam one of the few cashless countries in the region, with an emphasis on accessible digital payment systems and the adoption of blockchain technology.
One example is Vietnam’s very own Unicorn, Momo, which has become a ubiquitous mobile banking app and one of the leaders in B2C & C2C cashless payments.
This article was originally published in June 2019 and was updated with more accurate data and advice in February 2023.
Originally published: 12 June 2019; latest update: 21 February 2023
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